So whether you're talking about an American or European referring to the Filipino Martial Arts (FMA) styles of stick and sword fighting as Kali, or a resident of the Philippines more comfortable labeling them as Eskrima or Escrima, one thing is for certain.
If you want to know how to use weapons to protect yourself and devastate an opponent, Kali is a very efficient way to go.
The History of Kali
The history of almost any martial arts style is difficult to pin down because written records usually fail to accompany their beginnings. Kali's history is no different. However, it is generally believed that these native Filipino styles were started by various tribes in order to defend against one another. Further, it is quite possible that these styles originally emanated from or were strongly influenced by martial arts from other areas, such as India.
Regardless, the documentation indicates that Filipino Martial Arts styles were used when the Spanish conquistadores arrived in the 1500's and generally differed based on the tribe or area of origin. As was the case with many martial arts styles, the native practice of Kali or Eskrima was later hidden from the occupying Spaniards by clouding practices in dances, etc. That said, it is generally believed that the practice of Kali was significantly influenced by the Spaniards as it was refined over the years.
The presence of conflict in the Philippines has no doubt helped practitioners of Kali to find what truly worked in their art and discard much of what did not. In recent years, practices have become more systemized, making the art easier to learn.
During World War II, several American special operations groups stationed in the Philippines were introduced to the Filipino Martial Arts, leading to this style reaching America despite the fact that natives were reluctant to allow outsiders in on their fighting secrets.
Most recently, Kali practitioners in the Philippines have become somewhat focused on fighting without protection or dueling. Many died in the early phases of this movement, but more recently practitioners have begun to use hardwood sticks instead of knives to lessen fatalities. Further, the practice is now illegal in Filipino society, even if it is not unusual to find matches in parks and rural areas despite this.
Characteristics of Kali
Kali is a martial arts style that focuses on the ability to transition from fighting with weapons to empty hands fluidly, as there is always the possibility of losing or being without a weapon. Though there are several systems of Eskrima/Kali in use today, most teach elements of weapons fighting, striking, grappling, and throwing/ takedowns. Further, more aggressive maneuvers like biting are also taught.
Kali practitioners believe that hand-to-hand combat moves are similar to those with weapons; thus, these skills are developed concurrently. Some of the popular combinations of weapons used are the single stick (solo baston), double stick (double baston), and sword/stick and dagger (espada). Along with this, the most frequently used training weapon is the rattan, a stick about the length of its wielder's arm.
In the end, Kali practitioners are known for their lightning-fast movements and efficient footwork in wielding weapons.
Basic Goals of Kali
Kali is primarily a weapons-based style of fighting. Thus, it involves inflicting bad, often fatal damage to opponents with the use of weapons and/or empty hand techniques as quickly as possible.
Substyles of Kali
- Cabales Serrada Eskrima
- Doce Pares Escrima
- Garimot Arnis
- Inayan Eskrima
- Kali Sikaran
- Kalis Ilustrisimo
- Lacoste-Inosanto Kali
- Lameco Eskrima
- Latigo y Daga
- Lightning Scientific Arnis (LSAI)
- Modern Arnis
- Pekiti Tirsia
- Rapid arnis
- Sayoc Kali
- San Miguel Eskrima
Three Famous Kali Practitioners
- Angel Cabales: Cabales is widely considered the Father of Eskrima in the United States. Along with this, he was the first to open a school in Stockton, California that taught the art to both Filipinos and non-Filipinos.
- Leo T. Gaje: Gaje is the present Keeper of the Pekiti-Tirsia Kali System. He is also an awardee of the Karate Hall of Fame (the only non-Karate Awardee) and Martial Arts Hall of Fame.
- Dan Inosanto: Inosanto is perhaps best known for learning Jeet Kune Do under Bruce Lee and for being the only person granted Instructorship under him. However, he's also very accomplished in the Filipino Martial Arts, as well as a plethora of others. In fact, he is actually known for helping to save some of the Filipino styles from extinction. Inosanto currently teaches at the Inosanto Academy of Martial Arts in Marina del Ray, California.